Category: tomatoes

Indeterminate & Determinate Tomatoes

tomatoIf you have taken a look at the market garden lately, you might have noticed that Mark and I have constructed a tall stake-and-wire trellising system for many of our tomatoes.  This system will allow us to guide our indeterminate tomatoes up an 8ft piece of twine as they grow.  We will prune the ‘suckers’ from these plants to promote upward growth. Our determinate type tomatoes, will be supported by a shorter basket-weaving trellising system that will be less noticeable from the road.

We are constructing two different trellising systems because some tomato varieties(indeterminate) grow very tall up a central stem and other varieties ‘self-top’ at more manageable heights(determinate).  Here’s how I remember what indeterminate and determinate means–the height of determinate tomatoes is determined (usually under 6 ft) while the height of indeterminate tomatoes is not (they will grow until the central stem is pruned).

Home gardeners can use tomato cages to successfully support both indeterminate and determinate tomato varieties.  Although pruning is not necessary, indeterminate tomatoes may need to be pruned so that these free-wheeling tomatoes don’t take over your garden.  In contrast, determinate tomatoes should not be pruned.  Removing the suckers from determinate varieties will reduce your crop yield.  I prune only the bottom-most leaves and suckers from my determinate tomatoes because I don’t want foliage touching the ground.

Indeterminate and determinate tomato varieties also have different patterns of fruit production.  Determinate tomatoes produce a crop all at once.  This is great for gardeners who want to preserve their crop by canning–you can pick all at once and put everything up.  Roma, a popular canning tomato, is a determinate variety.  Indeterminate tomatoes keep producing fruit throughout the growing season.  This is great for growers who want slicing tomatoes.  It’s nice to have a few tomatoes ripening at any given time.   (Note:  All tomatoes tend to stop setting fruit when temperatures climb consistently into the mid 90’s.  This happens sooner than we’d like in Central Texas.)


Tempting Fate

Well, if we get a freeze you can blame it on me.  I decided to tempt fate and plant our tomatoes early.  More patient gardeners than I may have waited until March 15, when chances of a frost are minimal, but I just couldn’t resist trying to get a jump on the growing seatomato-1son.

Our daughter, Becky, seeded this group of tomatoes into tiny cells on January 15, then I repotted them into 4″ pots early this month. See post.   I took the pots from under the grow light and set them outside for the last few days to let the tomatoes get used to the weather.  This is called ‘hardening off.’

To plant tomatoes, add a bunch of organic matter to your soil.  Most Pflugerville soil is black clay and doesn’t drain very well.  Adding compost and sand, as well as planting in a raised bed or row will help your tomatoes get a good start.  Dig a hole deeper than is necessary for your tomato.  Tomatoes are one of the few plants that can be planted deeper than the soil line.

Carefully remove the pot from your plant.  You can see how well this tomato has rooted out in the pot.  That is a sign that this plant is ready to be planted into a bigger container or in the ground.

tomato root system.jpg

Fill in the hole and gently tamp down the dirt.  Give your plants a good long soak.  Planting on a cloudy day or early in the day can help prevent your tomatoes from wilting.  Plant tomatoes 2-3 feet apart.  Normally I would go ahead and put my tomato cages around my plants at this time because it’s easy to do while the plants are small, but since I’m planting early I’m leaving them cage-free in case I need to put a pot or other cover over them to protect them from the cold.

tomato planted.jpg

Time to Start Peppers & Tomatoes

soil and everything.jpgMid March is the magic time of year for vegetable gardeners in the Pflugerville area.  By mid March we’re almost guaranteed to have seen our last frost of the season.  This means plants can go into the ground with minimal risk of loss to cold weather.

Why am I thinking about March 15 on January 14?  Because it’s going to take about 8 weeks to grow our pepper and tomato transplants from seed.  If we get the seeds started today, the plants should be big enough to go outside as soon as March 15 comes around.  I’ll show you how we do it at the feeds store and how you can do it at home.

Start with a loose potting soil with lots of peat.  We use a seed starting mix.  Fluff up the soil and break up the clumps to get the soil ready to fill the planting tray.

You can plant into many different types of containers.  We are planting in a tray with 128 little cells but you can plant into clean six-pack trays, peat pots, newspaper pots, or small paper cups.  (Since we are starting with such small cells, we will transplant these into larger pots before they go outside.)

Fill your cells to the top with loose soil, then tamp the soil down so that you have about 1/4 inch ‘head space’.  We put a big pile of soil on top of our empty tray of cells then scrape it off to fill up all the trays.  It’s a bit like scooping up a big cup of flour when you’re baking then leveling it off with a knife.  Just as with baking, don’t compact the dirt when you fill it to the top.  Then we place an empty tray of cells on top of the filled one and press just a bit to compact the soil.

Place one seed in each cell.  There are some little gizmos you can buy to shake out the seeds one at a time, but after doing a lot of seeding we have found it’s easier for us just to use our hands or shake the seeds out of the package one at a time.

planting peppers.jpg

Cover the top of the seeded seed tray with some more of the soil (not quite up to the top of the cell) and water it in.  I use a big spray bottle to water the plants so I don’t wash the soil and seeds out of the tray.

Peppers and tomatoes seeds need quite a bit of warmth to germinate.  They would really like to have a soil temperature of 80-90 degrees.  We put our trays under a grow lamp inside where it’s warm but probably not quite to an optimal temp.  Next year we hope to have a heated greenhouse to use, so if you have one of those that’s where the seedlings would be happiest.  If you don’t have a grow light, or a greenhouse, you can put your trays in a sunny window in a warm room.  At lower temperatures just expect germination to be slower and may not be 100 percent.

Keep the soil moist but not wet.  Feed with a gentle liquid fertilizer every couple of weeks when the plants get their first true leaves.  Wait patiently for spring.

The reason why gardeners in Central Texas are so crazy mad to get a jump start on their peppers and tomatoes is because we want to get our plants outside early enough to get as many fruit set before the weather turns so hot the plants stop setting fruit.  Once the daily highs reach 90 degrees and above peppers and tomatoes and eggplants stop setting fruit.  They will ripen the fruit they have set and the plant can stay alive and healthy, but they will stop making fruit.